Researchers have found that opsin 3 — a protein closely related to rhodopsin, the protein that enables low-light vision — has a role in adjusting the amount of pigment produced in human skin, a determinant of skin color.
The incidence of colon and rectal cancer in adults younger than 50 years has increased substantially over the latest available 10-year period in several high-income countries, going against a decline or stabilisation trend in the incidence of colorectal cancers within the overall populations of high-income countries.
Long associated with decreased risk of cancer, broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables — the family of plants that also includes cauliflower, cabbage, collard greens, Brussels sprouts and kale — contain a molecule that inactivates a gene known to play a role in a variety of common human cancers. A new study demonstrates that targeting the gene, known as WWP1, with the ingredient found in broccoli suppressed tumor growth in cancer-prone lab animals.
Instead of searching for a needle in a haystack, what if you were able to sweep the entire haystack to one side, leaving only the needle behind? That’s the strategy researchers followed in developing a new microfluidic device that separates elusive circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from a sample of whole blood.
Faster, more accurate tests for drug-resistant infections are hailed as a promising tool in the fight against antibiotic resistance, so much so that the US and Britain are offering millions in prize money for their development. A modeling study shows that better tests could, in theory, change the game and put drug-resistant bacteria at a reproductive disadvantage relative to more easily-treated strains — but with a caveat.
In the first large-scale analysis of cancer gene fusions, researchers used CRISPR to uncover which gene fusions are critical for the growth of cancer cells. The team also identified a new gene fusion that presents a novel drug target for multiple cancers, including brain and ovarian cancers. The results give more certainty for the use of specific gene fusions to diagnose and guide the treatment of patients.
Scientists have now discovered that a certain group of cancer drugs (MEK Inhibitors) activates the cancer-promoting Wnt signalling pathway in colorectal cancer cells. This can lead to the accumulation of tumor cells with stem cell characteristics that are resistant to many therapies and can lead to relapses. The researchers thus provide a possible explanation for why these drugs are not effective in colorectal cancer.
Researchers have developed a specialized microscope that has the potential ability to both diagnose diseases that include skin cancer and perform incredibly precise surgery — all without cutting skin.
Scientists have discovered a curious phenomenon taking place in mouse skin: cells compete with one another for the chance to develop into mature tissue. The findings indicate that this antagonism is key to creating healthy skin.
A jawless parasitic fish could help lead the way to more effective treatments for multiple brain ailments, including cancer, trauma and stroke. Researchers borrowed molecules from the immune system of the parasitic sea lamprey to deliver anti-cancer drugs directly to brain tumors.
A team recently cataloged the neurological symptoms of patients who had received CAR T-cell therapy to better understand its neurotoxic side effects. While neurological symptoms were prevalent — 77 percent of patients experienced at least one symptom — they were also temporary.
Therapies that harness the power of the immune system against cancer have made remarkable progress against certain tumors but still remain ineffective in most cancer patients. A new study describes a method of reprogramming regulatory T cells that usually suppress immune responses into inflammatory cells that not only permit but also intensify an antitumor immune response.
Scientists have shown that a compound called PHT-7.3 shrinks KRAS-driven tumors in mice. In contrast to directly targeting mutant KRAS, the potential drug candidate targets the protein’s partner in crime: the cellular scaffold to which mutated KRAS attaches.
A study outlines findings from the largest-ever prospective genomic analysis of advanced prostate cancer tumors. Using comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) to analyze thousands of tumor samples from men with advanced prostate cancers, the researchers identified that 57% of the samples evaluated had genomic characteristics that suggested the tumors were candidates for targeted therapies.
Researchers have found that higher levels of aneuploidy lead to much greater lethality among prostate cancer patients. This suggest a mechanism for how some prostate cancers become lethal, and could be used to alert doctors which patients might need to be treated more aggressively.
Experts call for better regulation of a common additive in foods and medicine, as research reveals it can impact the gut microbiota and contribute to inflammation in the colon, which could trigger diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases and colorectal cancer.
Although classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma is generally easily treatable today, many aspects of the disease still remain a mystery. A team has now identified an important signaling molecule in the biology of this lymphoma: LTA. It helps the cancer to grow unimpeded – for example, by activating genes for immune checkpoint ligands that protect tumor cells from the body’s built-in defense system.
Decision fatigue and doctors falling behind schedule may lead to lower cancer screening rates, a new study finds.
Researchers have discovered a chink in the armor of the tumor cells of glioblastoma, a lethal brain cancer. Alongside the finding, the researchers also came up with a method for attacking this vulnerability. The results gained in experiments conducted with cell cultures and a mouse model are promising.
A novel imaging technique that uses a synthesized form of scorpion venom to light up brain tumors has shown promise in a clinical trial.
A new type of drug that targets a genetic weakness in an untreatable childhood brain cancer could become the first ever treatment designed to target the disease. The prototype treatment could also offer hope for patients with the rare and devastating ’stone man syndrome‘ — in which muscles and ligaments turn to bone.
Sunscreen can reduce the sun’s adverse effects, but there are concerns that it might inhibit the body’s production of vitamin D. In a new study, however, investigators recorded an increase of vitamin D in participants during a week of cloudless weather, with very high UV index, even when sunscreens were used properly and prevented sunburn.