Genetic marker, predictor of early relapse in pediatric ALL uncovered

Researchers recently discovered that by testing the level of NER (nucleotide excision repair) gene expression, pediatric oncologists can determine the likelihood of early relapse (less than three years) in their acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Chromatin opening elements allow tetracycline inducible gene expression in stem cells

In modern biomedicine, cell therapeutics are produced from reprogrammed stem cells (induced pluripotent stem cells, iPS). For this purpose, these cells can also undergo an additional genetic modification. However, unintentional mechanisms frequently occur, which can deactivate gene expression. Researchers from the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut (PEI) have developed inducible vectors containing ubiquitous chromatin opening elements (UCOE) which keep the relevant gene modified locus permanently open so that it remains active. The journal Biomaterials reports on these results in its online version of 24 November 2018. (Mehr in: Pressemitteilungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

New epigenetic drug strategy to treat cancer

Researchers have discovered that inhibiting CDK9, a DNA transcription regulator, reactivates genes that have been epigenetically silenced by cancer. Reactivation leads to restored tumor suppressor gene expression and enhanced anti-cancer immunity. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Predictor for immunotherapy response in melanoma

In a new study, researchers developed a gene expression predictor that can indicate whether melanoma in a specific patient is likely to respond to treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors, a novel type of immunotherapy. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Observing the mechanism of metastasis for the first time

The exact mechanisms for how broken cellular function appears in cells far removed from a cancer’s primary tumor remain an area of ongoing research. Scientists have now confirmed a link between healthy-tumor hybrid cells and metastatic tumors for the first time in live animals. They discuss how they studied the distinct, heterogenous gene expression profiles found in human hybrid cells and how hybrid cells spontaneously occur in mouse models. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

RNA molecules that regulate action of male hormone in prostate cancer identified

A study detected in tumoral tissue hundreds of RNAs that do not encode proteins but appear to regulate effects of androgens and androgen receptors on gene expression in tumors. By investigating the connection between the presence of these molecules and tumor aggressiveness, the research paves the way for new scientific approaches focusing on the transcription process of noncoding RNA. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

3D structure of DNA forms defined room for dissociated lncRNAs to activate gene expression

Enhancers are regulatory regions of the DNA, giving rise to “long non-coding RNAs” (lncRNAs), which are known as crucial regulators of gene expression. Scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics in Berlin now have shown that a lncRNA called A-ROD is only functional the moment it is released from chromatin into the nucleoplasm. In the current issue of Nature Communications the researchers demonstrate that the regulatory interaction requires dissociation of A-ROD from chromatin, with target specificity ensured within the pre-established chromosomal proximity. This can heavily influence our understanding of dynamic regulation of gene expression in biological processes. (Mehr in: Pressemitteilungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

Scientists characterise cancer genes using ground-breaking new method

In a paper in the journal “Science”, researchers from the Vienna BioCenter combine cutting-edge technologies to decipher regulatory functions of important cancer genes.
Key to this success is an innovative method called “SLAMseq”, which allows the direct detection of sudden changes in gene expression and thereby revolutionizes the way scientists can investigate effects of genes and drugs. (Mehr in: Pressemitteilungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

A non-coding RNA lasso catches proteins in breast cancer cells

A Danish-German research team has shown that not only the where and when of long non-coding RNA expression is important for their function but also the how. The results can have a big impact on our understanding of dynamic regulation of gene expression in biological processes. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Small molecule plays a big role in reducing cancer’s spread

One small molecule that helps regulate gene expression plays a big role in keeping us safe from the machinations of cancer, scientists report. In human lung cancer cells, they have shown low levels of the microRNA, miR-125a-5p, which enables the death of aberrant cells like cancer cells, correlates with high levels of the protein TIMP-1, which is already associated with a poor prognosis in patients with cancer. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Gene test to predict breast cancer recurrence less cost effective in real world practice

The most commonly used gene expression profile test, Oncotype DX®, used to help predict breast cancer recurrence may not be as cost-effective as once thought, say a team of researchers. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

How T-cells navigate the rough-and-tumble environment of the bloodstream

Helper T cells move toward inflamed tissue using membrane protrusions that stabilize them and provide traction on the vasculature. Using high-resolution microscopy and global molecular analysis, scientists show that immature T cells lack these protrusions but that maturing T-cells switch on a gene expression program to create material to construct them. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Novel regulation of gene expression in brain tumors identified

New study results reveal a previously unknown interplay between two key enzymes and a novel understanding of how brain cancer tumors form and spread. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Public resource boosts drug discovery, offers insights into protein function

Researchers have taken the Connectivity Map — a widely used resource of tools and data — to new heights with a massively scaled-up version. This expanded ‚connectivity map‘ creates more than 1.3 million gene expression profiles of drug treatment and genetic perturbation, accelerating research on small molecules and gene function. For this new platform, the researchers have improved its accessibility for the scientific community, enabling studies of small molecule and gene function and informing clinical trials. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Sight unseen: Gene expression reveals ‚hidden‘ variability in cancer cells‘ response to drugs

A new study reveals „hidden“ variability in how tumor cells are affected by anticancer drugs, offering new insights on why patients with the same form of cancer can have different responses to a drug. The results highlight strategies to better evaluate drug effectiveness and inform the development of synergistic drug combinations to overcome the ability of tumors to evade treatment. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Scientists demonstrate path to linking the genome to healthy tissues, disease

A study has reached a major milestone in establishing a baseline understanding of gene expression across healthy human tissues, and linking genes to disease. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Unexpected findings uncover new understanding of gene expression

Scientists have discovered surprising findings about an enzyme central to gene expression and mutated in many cancers. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

How estrogen regulates gene expression

The sequential recruitment of coactivators to the estrogen receptor complex results in dynamic specific structural and functional changes that are necessary for effective regulation of gene expression. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

How cells hack their own genes

Researchers at IMBA – Institute of Molecular Biotechnology of the Austrian Academy of Sciences – unveil novel mechanism for gene expression. (Mehr in: Pressemitteilungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

Glioblastoma ‚ecosystem‘ redefined for more effective immunotherapy trials

The intrinsic gene expression patterns of glioblastoma (GBM) tumors have been revealed by researchers, insights that could drive more effective treatments for GBM, the most common and deadly malignant primary brain tumors in adults. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

How are long strands of DNA packed into tiny cells?

Scientists are a step closer to understanding how our DNA is squeezed into every cell in the body. They provide the first-ever detailed picture of the nucleosome, the most basic building block of chromosomes (the structures that house our DNA). This finding will inform research on all processes that involve chromosomes, such as gene expression and DNA repair, which are critical to the understanding of diseases such as cancer. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Blocking gene expression to combat deadly fungal infection

Deadly fungal infections are becoming resistant to common treatments, but a team of researchers have found a potential new solution. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Predictable genetic interactions

Researchers at IST Austria develop a model to predict how genetic interactions impact gene expression for the first time│ Study published in eLife (Mehr in: Pressemitteilungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

Newly discovered DNA enhancers help switch on colorectal cancer

Genetic mutations can increase a person’s cancer risk, but other gene ‚enhancer‘ elements may also be responsible for disease progression, according to new research. In a breakthrough study, scientists discovered changes in specific regions of DNA, outside of colorectal cancer genes, that ‚enhance‘ harmful gene expression to help grow tumors. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Powerful optical imaging technology catches DNA naturally fluorescing

Biomedical engineers have developed imaging technology that is the first to see DNA ‚blink,‘ or fluoresce. The tool enables researchers to study individual biomolecules (DNA, chromatin, proteins) as well as important global patterns of gene expression, which could yield insights into cancer. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)