Mitochondria and the evolutionary roots of cancer

Cancer is a group of almost 200 diseases that involve variety of changes in cell structure, morphology, and physiology. Cancer phenotype is underlying several alterations in cellular dynamics with three most critical features, which includes self-sufficiency in growth signals and insensitivity to in

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Quantum Teleportation and Von Neumann Entropy

From the aspect of the quantum information theories, various quantum entropies are possibly computed at each stage, which ensures the emergence of the entangled states in the intermediate step. If a single qubit quantum teleportation is near the computational basis, the quantum measurement is domina

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About metabolism of a carcinoma cell

Most cancer cells utilize aerobic glycolysis irrespective of their tissue of origin. The alteration from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis – called the Warburg effect – is an universal phenomen and has now become a diagnostic tool for cancer detection. Warburg O, Posener K, Negelein E.

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A Mitochondrial Paradigm of Metabolic and Degenerative Diseases, Aging, and Cancer: A Dawn for Evolutionary Medicine

Progressive increase in mtDNA 3243A>G heteroplasmy causes abrupt transcriptional reprogramming Wallace hypothesized mitochondrial dysfunction as a central role in a wide range of age-related disorders and various forms of cancer. Steadily rising increases in mitochondrial DNA mutations cause abr

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Quantum entanglement between the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA

Rieper, Anders and Vedral modelled the electron clouds of nucleic acids in a single strand of DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours. As a main result, the entanglement contained in the chain coincides with the binding energy

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Implications of quantum metabolism and natural selection for the origin of cancer cells and tumor progression

Energy transfer in material solids is driven primarily by differences in intensive thermodynamic quantities such as pressure and temperature. The crucial observation  in quantum-theoretical models was the consideration of the heat capacity as associated with the vibrations of atoms in a crystalline

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Variation in cancer risk among tissues can be explained by the number of stem cell divisions

Tomasetti and Vogelstein show that the lifetime risk of cancers of many different types is strongly correlated with the total number of divisions of the normal self-renewing cells maintaining that tissue’s homeostasis. These results suggest that only a third of the variation in cancer risk among t

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Quantum Tunnelling to the Origin and Evolution of Life

Quantum tunnelling is a phenomenon which becomes relevant at the nanoscale and below. It is a paradox from the classical point of view as it enables elementary particles and atoms to permeate an energetic barrier without the need for sufficient energy to overcome it. Tunnelling is being of vital imp

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A new theory of the origin of cancer: quantum coherent entanglement, centrioles, mitosis, and differentiation

Low non-specific, low intensity laser illumination (635, 670 or 830 nm) apparently enhances centriole replication and promotes cell division, what is the opposite of a desired cancer therapy. In the contrary, centrioles are sensitive to coherent light. Then higher intensity laser illumination - stil

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Wholeness and implicate order: “Deep” quantum chemistry and cell consciousness: quantum chemistry controls genes and biochemistry to give cells and higher organism’s consciousness and complex behavior

Bohm used the term ‘holomovement’ which is an unbroken and undivided totality and carries an implicate order which is he totality of an order including both the manifested and non-manifested aspects of the order. Non-local quantum phenomena reside in a subtler level than quantum level that is th

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Probing RNA epigenetics and chromatin structures to predict drug resistance in leukemia

A research team has begun to unravel the role of RNA epigenetics and chromatin structure in the regulation of 5-azacytidine, a DNA hypomethylating agent in certain leukemias. The results could lead to novel strategies and biomarkers that could reduce the risk of drug resistance. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Blocking action of gene enhancers halts spread of tumor cells

In one of the first successes of its kind, researchers have inhibited the spreading of cancer cells from one part of the body to another. In doing so, they relied on a new model of how cancer metastasizes that emphasizes epigenetics, which examines how genes are turned on and off. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

After the epigenome: The epitranscriptome

A new article explains that RNA also has its own spelling and grammar, just like DNA. These ‚epigenetics of RNA‘ are called epitranscriptome. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Epigenetics provides new insights into the pathogenesis of lymphoma

Cancer cells have a different DNA methylation pattern from that of healthy cells. These patterns can be used to explain tumor-specific deviations in gene expression and to identify biomarkers for the detection of tumors, as well as associated prognosis and treatment planning. This is all possible thanks to epigenetics. Epigenetics looks at special regulation mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, which determine the gene expression pattern of different types of cell and are passed on to daughter cells, without there being any specific changes to the DNA base sequence. Using this technology, it is now also possible to […]

The impact of epigenetics on brain development

Scientists of CNMPB, MPIbpc and DZNE in Göttingen describe a molecular mechanism that controls global epigenetic programs in brain development. Published in Cell Reports. (Mehr in: Pressemitteilungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

Linking gene expression, DNA methylation in single cells

A new single-cell genomics protocol allows researchers to study links between DNA modifications (methylation) and the activity of a gene. The method is the first to enable parallel profiling of the transcriptome and epigenome of a single cell. The researchers used the method to reveal new epigenome-transcriptome associations relevant to the regulation of pluripotency in mouse embryonic stem cells; The method is potentially transformative for epigenetics research, as it reveals unprecedented detail of the epigenetic control of genes. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Like father like son: Epigenetics in wild guinea pigs

Fathers are able to adjust to increasing temperatures within their own lifetime and do transmit this information to their offspring. This has now been shown for the first time in a wild animal. The findings were the result of a project within the Joint Initiative for Research and Innovation and have been published in the scientific journal “Molecular Ecology”. (Mehr in: Pressemitteilungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

Epigenetic discovery suggests DNA modifications more diverse than previously thought

The world of epigenetics — where molecular ‚switches‘ attached to DNA turn genes on and off — has just got bigger with a new discovery that suggests that many more DNA modifications than previously thought may exist in human, mouse and other vertebrates. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Differences between tumors of younger and older colorectal cancer patients

Tumors in younger colorectal cancer patients may be molecularly distinct from those of older patients, and that these differences are related to the way genes are switched on and off (epigenetics) in the tumors of the younger patients and may lead to better treatment options. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

A global assessment of cancer genomic alterations in epigenetic mechanisms

Muhammad A Shah, Emily L Denton, Cheryl H Arrowsmith, Mathieu Lupien and Matthieu Schapira

Abstract Background

The notion that epigenetic mechanisms may be central to cancer initiation and progression is supported by recent next-generation sequencing efforts revealing that genes involved in chromatin-mediated signaling are recurrently mutated in cancer patients.

Results

Here, we analyze mutational and transcriptional profiles from TCGA and the ICGC across a collection 441 chromatin factors and histones. Chromatin factors essential for rapid replication are frequently overexpressed, and those that maintain genome stability frequently mutated. We identify novel mutation hotspots such as K36M in histone H3.1, and uncover […]

Cancer news

Remote-control shoots laser at nano-gold to turn on cancer-killing immune cells

20. Apr. 2018

Cancer immune cell therapy has made headlines with astounding successes like saving former US President Jimmy Carter from brain cancer. But immunotherapy has also had many tragic flops. Researchers working to optimize the innovative treatment have implanted a genetic switch that activates T-cells when they are inside of tumors. Remote-control light waves resembling those used in a TV remote combine with gold nanorods to flip the switch. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

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Treatment of cancer could become possible with adenovirus

20. Apr. 2018

Researchers have shown that adenovirus binds to a specific type of carbohydrate that is overexpressed on certain types of cancer cells. The discovery opens up new opportunities for the development of virus-based cancer therapy. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

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Soil metals linked with cancer mortality

20. Apr. 2018

Epidemiologists and geologists have found associations between esophageal cancer and soils where lead is abundant, lung cancer and terrains with increased copper content, brain tumor with areas rich in arsenic, and bladder cancer with high cadmium levels. These statistical links do not indicate that there is a cause-effect relationship between soil type and cancer, but they suggest that the influence of metals from the earth’s surface on the geographical distribution of tumors should be analyzed. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

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Vitamin D deficiency linked to greater risk of diabetes

19. Apr. 2018

An epidemiological study suggests that persons deficient in vitamin D may be at much greater risk of developing diabetes. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

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Gene-edited stem cells show promise against HIV in non-human primates

19. Apr. 2018

Gene editing of bone marrow stem cells in pigtail macaques infected with simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) significantly reduces the size of dormant ‚viral reservoirs‘ that pose a risk of reactivation. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

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Synthetic cancer indicator: An artificial mole as an early warning system

18. Apr. 2018

Researchers have developed an early warning system for the four most common types of cancer. Should a tumor develop, a visible mole will appear on the skin. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

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Detailed images of tumor vasculature

18. Apr. 2018

Thanks to a new method of analyzing ultrasound images, conventional scanners can be used for generating high-res images of blood vessels in tumors. This approach makes it easier to distinguish between different types of tumors, and it facilitates the tracking of the progress and success of chemotherapy. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

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T cell antigen receptors act alone: Longstanding immunological mystery solved

18. Apr. 2018

With a standard electron microscope, only dead T cells can be studied. Therefore, it is very hard to figure out the inner workings of the cell. New microscopy techniques, making it possible to study living T cells, have now led to surprising results: while it has been generally believed that T cell receptors must interact with one another for effective immune-signaling, the new study shows: T cell receptors act alone. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

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Can a simple blood test rule out lung cancer?

17. Apr. 2018

A blood test to measure the levels of two proteins in plasma that are common predictors of lung cancer was 98 percent effective in a multicenter clinical trial at distinguishing benign from malignant lung nodules when combined with a patient’s clinical characteristics to form an integrated classifier. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

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Efficient control of leukemia with treatment by dual immune-checkpoint blockade

17. Apr. 2018

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a hematological malignancy. When infiltrating tissues, CLL cells come in contact with healthy cells, including immune cells. Researchers have now characterized the composition of immune cells and circulating cytokines of the CLL microenvironment in mouse models using mass cytometry. Based on this knowledge, they propose an immunotherapeutic strategy with two immune checkpoint inhibitors that efficiently blocks disease development in preclinical tests. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

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A new, streamlined approach to diagnosing and treating bowel cancer

17. Apr. 2018

Researchers have discovered a faster, more cost-effective way to determine which DNA mutations cause human bowel cancer. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

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Some human cancers are ‚evolutionary accidents‘

17. Apr. 2018

New research has found some type of cancers unique to humans may be a result of evolutionary accidents. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

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Preserving fertility during chemotherapy

17. Apr. 2018

One of the most significant impairments of the quality of life after a chemotherapy is infertility. Researchers have now identified the mechanism of chemotherapy-induced infertility in females. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

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Possible novel method for stopping untreatable pediatric brain cancers

17. Apr. 2018

Researchers used an experimental molecular therapy in preclinical laboratory tests to effectively treat several types of deadly pediatric brain cancer and now propose advancing the treatment to clinical testing in children. Scientists report testing the small molecule 6-thio-2’deoxyguanosine (6-thio-dG) in brain cancer stem cells derived from tumor cells donated by patients. Researchers also tested the treatment in humanized mouse models of pediatric brain cancer. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

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Top-down approach gets to the bottom of cancer

17. Apr. 2018

By studying patient colorectal tumors, a research team characterizes a fully intact protein that results from a mutation of the RAS gene, the first cancer gene ever pinpointed in human cancer cells. This finding opens the door for new targets for treatment of a gene currently thought to be ‚undruggable.‘ (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

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Combination therapy strengthens T cells in melanoma pre-clinical study

17. Apr. 2018

A pre-clinical study of two drugs designed to boost T cell performance, has revealed the agents, when give in combination, may enhance the immune system’s ability to kill melanoma tumors deficient in the tumor suppressor gene PTEN. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

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Is whole-brain radiation still best for brain metastases from small-cell lung cancer?

16. Apr. 2018

A new study compares outcomes of 5,752 small-cell lung cancer patients who received whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) with those of 200 patients who received stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), finding that the median overall survival was actually longer with SRS (10.8 months with SRS versus 7.1 months with WBRT). (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

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Veranstaltungen

11. Bamberger Neuropsychologie-Tag

04. Apr. 2018

Neuropsychologinnen und Neuropsychologen aus Deutschland und der Schweiz referieren über aktuelle Forschungen und deren klinische Implikationen. (Mehr in: Veranstaltungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

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Anwendertage – Plasmaoberflächentechnologie

01. Apr. 2018

Plasmagestützte Oberflächentechnologie bietet Ihnen einen großen Baukasten an Optionen, neuartige Produkte zu entwickeln sowie das Anwendungsspektrum bereits existierender Produkte oder ihre Funktionalität zu erweitern. Im Rahmen der Anwendertage am INP Greifswald stellen wir Ihnen die Chancen dieser Technologien greifbar und verständlich vor und demonstrieren, wie Sie diese in Ihre Produktion integrieren und für die Entwicklung neuartiger Produkte nutzen können. (Mehr in: Veranstaltungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

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17. FEI-Kooperationsforum "Proteinversorgung der Zukunft" (inkl. TROPHELIA Deutschland 2018)

01. Apr. 2018

Die Ressourcen werden knapper. Gleichzeitig stehen große gesellschaftliche Herausforderungen wie Klimawandel und Bevölkerungswachstum und die damit verbundene Nahrungssicherung auf dem Plan: Im Jahr 2050 werden laut Prognosen 9,8 Milliarden Menschen auf der Erde leben, die mit Lebensmitteln versorgt werden müssen. Vor diesem Hintergrund sind auch reiche Industrieländer wie Deutschland gefragt, Ansätze und Lösungen für eine alternative Proteinversorgung zu entwickeln. (Mehr in: Veranstaltungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

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Buchpräsentation | "Stammzellen: Ersatzteile für die alternde Gesellschaft?", 09.04.2018, 18:00 Uhr

01. Apr. 2018

Patienten und Patientinnen setzen große Hoffnung in Stammzellen zur Behandlung von bisher nicht oder nur ungenügend therapierbaren Erkrankungen. Wie realistisch sind diese Hoffnungen? Wo steht die Stammzellforschung heute? Was ist in Deutschland und international erlaubt? Was bleibt umstritten? Mit dieser Podiumsdiskussion stellt die interdisziplinäre Arbeitsgruppe „Gentechnologiebericht“ ihren neuesten Themenband zur Stammzellforschung vor. (Mehr in: Veranstaltungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

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Medizinprodukte klinisch bewerten: MEDDEV 2.7/1 Rev 4 und MDR

01. Apr. 2018

Medizinprodukte müssen klinisch bewertet werden, bevor sie in Europa in Verkehr gebracht werden dürfen. Dazu soll die MEDDEV 2.7/1 Herstellern und Benannten Stellen erläutern, wie eine klinische Bewertung eines Medizinproduktes zu erstellen ist. (Mehr in: Veranstaltungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

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Laboratoriumsmedizin im Klinikum rechts der Isar – von POCT bis Diagnosen in der Notfallmedizin

01. Apr. 2018

Um den Austausch zwischen Labormedizinern und Ingenieuren aus Industrie und Forschung zu fördern, veranstaltet das Institut für Klinische Chemie und Pathobiochemie des Klinikums rechts der Isar in München gemeinsam mit der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Biomedizinische Technik im VDE (DGBMT) den eintägigen Praxis-Workshop „Laboratoriumsmedizin für Ingenieure“. (Mehr in: Veranstaltungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

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Frühjahrsforum der Deutschen Hochschulmedizin

01. Apr. 2018

„Die politische Agenda in der neuen Legislaturperiode“ ist der Titel des Frühjahrsforum 2018 der Deutschen Hochschulmedizin. In diesem Jahr wirft die Veranstaltung einen Blick auf die Themen der Hochschulmedizin, die in der kommenden Wahlperiode eine besondere Rolle spielen werden. (Mehr in: Veranstaltungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

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