Plant cells inherit knowledge of where’s up and where’s down from mother cell

At cell division, mother cell passes polarity information on to daughter cells – Study published in Nature Plants (Mehr in: Pressemitteilungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

Exhaustive analysis reveals cell division’s inner timing mechanisms

After exploring every possible correlation, researchers shed new light on a long-standing question about what triggers cell division. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

First interactive model of human cell division

Mitosis — how one cell divides and becomes two — is one of the fundamental processes of life. Researchers have now produced an interactive map of proteins that make our cells divide, allowing users to track exactly where and in which groups the proteins drive the division process forward. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Scientists uncover DNA ’shield‘ w/crucial roles in normal cell division

New fundamental complex in cells drives ‚messy‘ form of DNA repair. In immune cells, this is crucial to make antibodies. In cancer, mutations in complex could lead to resistance to BRCA-targeting PARP inhibitor drugs or platinum chemotherapies. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

New control of cell division discovered

When a cell divides, its constituents are usually evenly distributed among the daughter cells. Researchers have now identified an enzyme that guarantees that cell constituents that are concentrated in organelles without a membrane are properly distributed. Their discovery opens up new opportunities for the treatment of cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, aging processes and viral infections. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

New Control of Cell Division Discovered

When a cell divides, its constituents are usually evenly distributed among the daughter cells. UZH researchers have now identified an enzyme that guarantees that cell constituents that are concentrated in organelles without a membrane are properly distributed. Their discovery opens up new opportunities for the treatment of cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, aging processes and viral infections. (Mehr in: Pressemitteilungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

Molecular brake on human cell division prevents cancer

Researchers have discovered that the process of copying DNA generates a brake signal that stalls cell division. This molecular brake ensures that the cell has two complete copies of DNA before it divides and thus prevents DNA damage and cancer development. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Amplification of key cellular organizer may initiate cancer

Cells begin to accumulate centrosomes — organelles that play a vital role during cell division — before they transform into cancer cells, according to a new study of patients with Barrett’s esophagus condition, which is associated with esophageal cancer. The research, which will be published May 8 in the Journal of Cell Biology, suggests that similar cases of centrosome amplification may contribute to the initiation and progression of a variety of human cancers. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Back to sleep: How SETD1A takes blood stem cells to rest

In old age, humans increasingly suffer from infections. Blood stem cells that are usually inactive are activated in order to produce as many blood and immune cells as needed to fight the infection. But every cell division entails the risk of accumulating DNA damages. Damaged cells are usually detected and eliminated, but if all stem cells are gone, there will be no cells to defend the body during the next infection. Researchers from Leibniz Institute on Aging (FLI) in Jena have identified a central mechanism related to SETD1A enzyme, which is responsible for detecting and repairing DNA damages in blood stem cells and, hence, is crucial for blood stem cells go back to sleep after infections. (Mehr in: Pressemitteilungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

How Intestinal Cells Renew Themselves

The intestine of many organisms must be able to renew itself to recover from environmental insults like bacterial infections. This renewal is made possible by a small number of intestinal stem cells which divide and produce daughter cells throughout their lives. The daughter cells differentiate into highly specialised gut cell types. Researchers at Heidelberg University have studied these processes in the fruit fly and gained new insights into the role of centromeric proteins that largely regulate cell division. The studies reveal that these proteins also play an important part in cell differentiation and tissue renewal. (Mehr in: Pressemitteilungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

Mimicking nanoscale natural movements with the help of DNA Origami

Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems together with researchers at the University of Heidelberg and the University of Stuttgart use a technique called DNA origami to mimic a multitude of vital movements seen in nature, such as the sliding motion exerted by protein motors during cell division. Their invention, which is a thousand times smaller than a human hair, features a preliminary attempt to construct nanoscale analogues of the mysterious natural machines in living cells. (Mehr in: Pressemitteilungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

Why premature cell division promotes cancers

The accumulation of mutations in the human genome is at the origin of cancers, as well as the development of resistance to treatments. The Cyclin E and Myc genes are active in the control of cell division. Biologists show that precocious entry of the genome into the replication phase leads to molecular collisions occurring on the DNA and induces new mutations. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Studying mitosis‘ structure to understand the inside of cancer cells

Cell division is an intricately choreographed ballet of proteins and molecules that divide the cell. During mitosis, microtubule-organizing centers assemble the spindle fibers that separate the copying chromosomes of DNA. While scientists are familiar with MTOCs‘ existence and the role they play in cell division, their actual physical structure remains poorly understood. Researchers are now trying to decipher their molecular architecture. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Ras protein’s role in spreading cancer

Protein systems make up the complex signaling pathways that control whether a cell divides or, in some cases, metastasizes. Ras proteins have long been the focus of cancer research because of their role as ‚on/off switch‘ signaling pathways that control cell division and failure to die like healthy cells do. Now, a team of researchers has been able to study precisely how Ras proteins interact with cell membrane surfaces. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Stem cell divisions in the adult brain seen for the first time

Scientists from the University of Zurich have succeeded for the first time in tracking individual stem cells and their neuronal progeny over months within the intact adult brain. This study sheds light on how new neurons are produced throughout life. (Mehr in: Pressemitteilungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

Another piece to the puzzle in naked mole rats‘ long, cancer-free life

Cellular senescence is an evolutionary adaptation that prevents damaged cells from dividing out of control and developing into cancer. However, senescence has a negative side: by stopping cell division, it also accelerates aging. In a surprising finding, biologists have shown that naked mole rats experience the same cellular senescence as much shorter-lived mice, yet they continue to live long, cancer-free lives. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

What keeps stem cells in their undifferentiated state?

A special cluster of proteins helps unwind DNA during cell division and plays a key role in keeping stem cells in their immature state, scientists have discovered. This study also points to a better understanding of how cancer cells manage to sustain rapid cell division without triggering cell death. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Important new aspects are revealed about the control of cell division

Experts have published a new study on the mechanisms that regulate cell division and guarantee the correct distribution of chromosomes during this process. In particular, they especially highlight the fundamental role that an organelle, specifically the nucleolus, plays in the coordination of these processes. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Cancer drug stimulates tripolar mode of mitosis

Taxanes inhibit cell division and make cancer cells sensitive to radiation therapy. A current study has investigated the underlying mechanisms of this action – and which biomarkers may be useful for predicting the success of therapy. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Cancer Drug Stimulates Tripolar Mode of Mitosis

Taxanes inhibit cell division and make cancer cells sensitive to radiation therapy. A current study has investigated the underlying mechanisms of this action – and which biomarkers may be useful for predicting the success of therapy. The study, published in the journal ‘Oncogene’, was carried out within the framework of the Clinical Cooperation Group Personalized Radiotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer at Helmholtz Zentrum München and Munich University Hospital. (Mehr in: Pressemitteilungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

Problems with DNA replication can cause epigenetic changes that may be inherited for several generations

Scientists reveal that a fault in the process that copies DNA during cell division can cause epigenetic changes that may be inherited for up-to five generations. They also identified the cause of these epigenetic changes, which is related to the loss of a molecular mechanism in charge of silencing genes. Their results will change the way we think about the impact of replication stress in cancer and during embryonic development, as well as its inter-generational inheritance. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

How human cells maintain the correct number of chromosomes

Researchers have discovered an important part of the mechanism involved in how chromosomes are pulled apart during cell division, so that one complete set goes into each of the new cells. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Cannibal cells may limit cancer growth

New research reveals a link between cell cannibalism and cancer biology. Cell cannibalism occurs when one cell surrounds, kills and digests another. This latest research reveals that cannibalism can be triggered by cell division; when one cell divides to form two. Since uncontrolled cell division is a key hallmark of cancer, this suggests that cannibalism may have a role to play in resisting cancer. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

‚Hail Mary‘ mechanism can rescue cells with severely damaged chromosomes

Safeguards for maintaining the integrity of chromosomes during cell growth and division can fail, and a cell may find itself trying to divide into two daughter cells with a loose chromosomal fragment drifting away from a broken chromosome. Researchers are studying a remarkable mechanism that carries broken chromosomes through the process of cell division so that they can be repaired and function normally in the daughter cells. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Scientists discover how epithelial cells maintain constant cell numbers

New research shows how epithelial cells naturally turn over, maintaining constant numbers between cell division and cell death. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)