Implications of quantum metabolism and natural selection for the origin of cancer cells and tumor progression

Energy transfer in material solids is driven primarily by differences in intensive thermodynamic quantities such as pressure and temperature. The crucial observation  in quantum-theoretical models was the consideration of the heat capacity as associated with the vibrations of atoms in a crystalline

[ read more ]

A new theory of the origin of cancer: quantum coherent entanglement, centrioles, mitosis, and differentiation

Low non-specific, low intensity laser illumination (635, 670 or 830 nm) apparently enhances centriole replication and promotes cell division, what is the opposite of a desired cancer therapy. In the contrary, centrioles are sensitive to coherent light. Then higher intensity laser illumination - stil

[ read more ]

Quantum Tunnelling to the Origin and Evolution of Life

Quantum tunnelling is a phenomenon which becomes relevant at the nanoscale and below. It is a paradox from the classical point of view as it enables elementary particles and atoms to permeate an energetic barrier without the need for sufficient energy to overcome it. Tunnelling is being of vital imp

[ read more ]

About metabolism of a carcinoma cell

Most cancer cells utilize aerobic glycolysis irrespective of their tissue of origin. The alteration from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis – called the Warburg effect – is an universal phenomen and has now become a diagnostic tool for cancer detection. Warburg O, Posener K, Negelein E.

[ read more ]

Variation in cancer risk among tissues can be explained by the number of stem cell divisions

Tomasetti and Vogelstein show that the lifetime risk of cancers of many different types is strongly correlated with the total number of divisions of the normal self-renewing cells maintaining that tissue’s homeostasis. These results suggest that only a third of the variation in cancer risk among t

[ read more ]

Mitochondria and the evolutionary roots of cancer

Cancer is a group of almost 200 diseases that involve variety of changes in cell structure, morphology, and physiology. Cancer phenotype is underlying several alterations in cellular dynamics with three most critical features, which includes self-sufficiency in growth signals and insensitivity to in

[ read more ]

Quantum Teleportation and Von Neumann Entropy

From the aspect of the quantum information theories, various quantum entropies are possibly computed at each stage, which ensures the emergence of the entangled states in the intermediate step. If a single qubit quantum teleportation is near the computational basis, the quantum measurement is domina

[ read more ]

Wholeness and implicate order: “Deep” quantum chemistry and cell consciousness: quantum chemistry controls genes and biochemistry to give cells and higher organism’s consciousness and complex behavior

Bohm used the term ‘holomovement’ which is an unbroken and undivided totality and carries an implicate order which is he totality of an order including both the manifested and non-manifested aspects of the order. Non-local quantum phenomena reside in a subtler level than quantum level that is th

[ read more ]

A Mitochondrial Paradigm of Metabolic and Degenerative Diseases, Aging, and Cancer: A Dawn for Evolutionary Medicine

Progressive increase in mtDNA 3243A>G heteroplasmy causes abrupt transcriptional reprogramming Wallace hypothesized mitochondrial dysfunction as a central role in a wide range of age-related disorders and various forms of cancer. Steadily rising increases in mitochondrial DNA mutations cause abr

[ read more ]

Quantum entanglement between the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA

Rieper, Anders and Vedral modelled the electron clouds of nucleic acids in a single strand of DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours. As a main result, the entanglement contained in the chain coincides with the binding energy

[ read more ]

A global assessment of cancer genomic alterations in epigenetic mechanisms

Muhammad A Shah, Emily L Denton, Cheryl H Arrowsmith, Mathieu Lupien and Matthieu Schapira

Abstract

Background

The notion that epigenetic mechanisms may be central to cancer initiation and progression is supported by recent next-generation sequencing efforts revealing that genes involved in chromatin-mediated signaling are recurrently mutated in cancer patients.

Results

Here, we analyze mutational and transcriptional profiles from TCGA and the ICGC across a collection 441 chromatin factors and histones. Chromatin factors essential for rapid replication are frequently overexpressed, and those that maintain genome stability frequently mutated. We identify novel mutation hotspots such as K36M in histone H3.1, and uncover a general trend in which transcriptional profiles and somatic mutations in tumor samples favor increased transcriptionally repressive histone methylation, and defective chromatin remodeling.

Conclusions

This unbiased approach confirms previously published data, uncovers novel cancer-associated aberrations targeting epigenetic mechanisms, and justifies continued monitoring of chromatin-related alterations as a class, as more cancer types and distinct cancer stages are represented in cancer genomics data repositories.

Continue reading A global assessment of cancer genomic alterations in epigenetic mechanisms

Three-dimensional super-resolution microscopy of the inactive X chromosome territory reveals a collapse of its active nuclear compartment harboring distinct Xist RNA foci

3D-SIM-based DAPI intensity classification in the Barr body versus the entire nucleus of C2C12 cells. (A) Mid z-section of a DAPI-stained nucleus. The area below the dashed line illustrates the resolution level obtained by wide-field deconvolution microscopy, for comparison. Inset magnifications show the non-uniformly compacted structure of the Barr body resolvable with 3D-SIM (1) and an arbitrary autosomal region with CDCs (2). Scale bars: 5 μm, insets 1 μm. (B) X chromosome-specific painting (green) of Xi (left) and Xa territories (right) of the same nucleus in different z-sections. Note the high convergence between the painted Xi and the DAPI visualized Barr body (arrowheads). Scale bars: 2 μm, insets 1 μm. (C) 3D DAPI intensity classification exemplified for the nucleus shown in (A). Seven DAPI intensity classes displayed in false-color code ranging from class 1 (blue) representing pixels close to background intensity, largely representing the IC, up to class 7 (white) representing pixels with highest density, mainly associated with chromocenters. Framed areas of the Barr body (inset 1) and a representative autosomal region (inset 2) are shown on the right at resolution levels of 3D-SIM, deconvolution and conventional wide-field microscopy. The Xi territory pervaded by lower DAPI intensities becomes evident only at 3D-SIM resolution, whereas both wide-field and deconvolution microscopy imply a concentric increase of density in the Barr body. In the autosomal region, chromatin assigned to classes 2 to 3 lines compacted CDCs, represented by classes 4 to 6. (D) Left: average DAPI intensity classification profiles with standard deviations evaluated for entire nuclear volumes or the Barr body region only (dark grey bars). Right: over/underrepresentation of the average DAPI intensity class fraction sizes in the Barr body versus entire nuclear volumes (n = 12). Distribution differences on classes between Xi and entire nucleus P <0.001. 3D-SIM, three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy; CDC, chromatin domain cluster; DAPI, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; FISH, fluorescence in situ hybridization; IC, interchromatin compartment; Xa, active X chromosome; Xi, inactive X chromosome. Smeets et al. Epigenetics & Chromatin 2014 7:8   doi:10.1186/1756-8935-7-8

3D-SIM-based DAPI intensity classification in the Barr body versus the entire nucleus of C2C12 cells. (A) Mid z-section of a DAPI-stained nucleus. The area below the dashed line illustrates the resolution level obtained by wide-field deconvolution microscopy, for comparison. Inset magnifications show the non-uniformly compacted structure of the Barr body resolvable with 3D-SIM (1) and an arbitrary autosomal region with CDCs (2). Scale bars: 5 μm, insets 1 μm. (B) X chromosome-specific painting (green) of Xi (left) and Xa territories (right) of the same nucleus in different z-sections. Note the high convergence between the painted Xi and the DAPI visualized Barr body (arrowheads). Scale bars: 2 μm, insets 1 μm. (C) 3D DAPI intensity classification exemplified for the nucleus shown in (A). Seven DAPI intensity classes displayed in false-color code ranging from class 1 (blue) representing pixels close to background intensity, largely representing the IC, up to class 7 (white) representing pixels with highest density, mainly associated with chromocenters. Framed areas of the Barr body (inset 1) and a representative autosomal region (inset 2) are shown on the right at resolution levels of 3D-SIM, deconvolution and conventional wide-field microscopy. The Xi territory pervaded by lower DAPI intensities becomes evident only at 3D-SIM resolution, whereas both wide-field and deconvolution microscopy imply a concentric increase of density in the Barr body. In the autosomal region, chromatin assigned to classes 2 to 3 lines compacted CDCs, represented by classes 4 to 6. (D) Left: average DAPI intensity classification profiles with standard deviations evaluated for entire nuclear volumes or the Barr body region only (dark grey bars). Right: over/underrepresentation of the average DAPI intensity class fraction sizes in the Barr body versus entire nuclear volumes (n = 12). Distribution differences on classes between Xi and entire nucleus P Smeets et al. Epigenetics & Chromatin 2014 7:8 doi:10.1186/1756-8935-7-8

Daniel Smeets, Yolanda Markaki, Volker J Schmid, Felix Kraus, Anna Tattermusch, Andrea Cerase, Michael Sterr, Susanne Fiedler, Justin Demmerle, Jens Popken, Heinrich Leonhardt, Neil Brockdorff, Thomas Cremer1, Lothar Schermelleh and Marion Cremer

Abstract

Background

A Xist RNA decorated Barr body is the structural hallmark of the compacted inactive X territory in female mammals. Using super-resolution three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) and quantitative image analysis, we compared its ultrastructure with active chromosome territories (CTs) in human and mouse somatic cells, and explored the spatio-temporal process of Barr body formation at onset of inactivation in early differentiating mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs).

Results

We demonstrate that all CTs are composed of structurally linked chromatin domain clusters (CDCs). In active CTs the periphery of CDCs harbors low-density chromatin enriched with transcriptionally competent markers, called the perichromatin region (PR). The PR borders on a contiguous channel system, the interchromatin compartment (IC), which starts at nuclear pores and pervades CTs. We propose that the PR and macromolecular complexes in IC channels together form the transcriptionally permissive active nuclear compartment (ANC). The Barr body differs from active CTs by a partially collapsed ANC with CDCs coming significantly closer together, although a rudimentary IC channel system connected to nuclear pores is maintained. Distinct Xist RNA foci, closely adjacent to the nuclear matrix scaffold attachment factor-A (SAF-A) localize throughout Xi along the rudimentary ANC. In early differentiating ESCs initial Xist RNA spreading precedes Barr body formation, which occurs concurrent with the subsequent exclusion of RNA polymerase II (RNAP II). Induction of a transgenic autosomal Xist RNA in a male ESC triggers the formation of an ‘autosomal Barr body’ with less compacted chromatin and incomplete RNAP II exclusion.

Conclusions

3D-SIM provides experimental evidence for profound differences between the functional architecture of transcriptionally active CTs and the Barr body. Basic structural features of CT organization such as CDCs and IC channels are however still recognized, arguing against a uniform compaction of the Barr body at the nucleosome level. The localization of distinct Xist RNA foci at boundaries of the rudimentary ANC may be considered as snap-shots of a dynamic interaction with silenced genes. Enrichment of SAF-A within Xi territories and its close spatial association with Xist RNA suggests their cooperative function for structural organization of Xi.

Continue reading Three-dimensional super-resolution microscopy of the inactive X chromosome territory reveals a collapse of its active nuclear compartment harboring distinct Xist RNA foci

The carcinogenic effect of various multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) after intraperitoneal injection in rats

Non-neoplastic histopathological findings in the abdominal cavity. A: High-power view of anti-podoplanin immunohistochemistry showing single MWCNT A (high dose) nanotubes in the tissue (arrows). B: High-power view of anti-podoplanin immunohistochemistry showing single asbestos fibers in the tissue (arrows). C: H & E, high-power view of granuloma induced by MWCNT A (low dose) nanotubes including single nanotube (arrow, 25×). D: H & E, high-power view of granuloma induced by asbestos including single fiber (arrow, 40×). Rittinghausen et al. Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2014 11:59   doi:10.1186/s12989-014-0059-z

Non-neoplastic histopathological findings in the abdominal cavity. A: High-power view of anti-podoplanin immunohistochemistry showing single MWCNT A (high dose) nanotubes in the tissue (arrows). B: High-power view of anti-podoplanin immunohistochemistry showing single asbestos fibers in the tissue (arrows). C: H & E, high-power view of granuloma induced by MWCNT A (low dose) nanotubes including single nanotube (arrow, 25×). D: H & E, high-power view of granuloma induced by asbestos including single fiber (arrow, 40×).
Rittinghausen et al. Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2014 11:59 doi:10.1186/s12989-014-0059-z

Susanne Rittinghausen, Anja Hackbarth, Otto Creutzenberg, Heinrich Ernst, Uwe Heinrich, Albrecht Leonhardt and Dirk Schaudien

Abstract

Background

Biological effects of tailor-made multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) without functionalization were investigated in vivo in a two-year carcinogenicity study. In the past, intraperitoneal carcinogenicity studies in rats using biopersistent granular dusts had always been negative, whereas a number of such studies with different asbestos fibers had shown tumor induction. The aim of this study was to identify possible carcinogenic effects of MWCNTs. We compared induced tumors with asbestos-induced mesotheliomas and evaluated their relevance for humans by immunohistochemical methods.

Methods

A total of 500 male Wistar rats (50 per group) were treated once by intraperitoneal injection with 109 or 5 × 109 WHO carbon nanotubes of one of four different MWCNTs suspended in artificial lung medium, which was also used as negative control. Amosite asbestos (108 WHO fibers) served as positive control. Morbid rats were sacrificed and necropsy comprising all organs was performed. Histopathological classification of tumors and, additionally, immunohistochemistry were conducted for podoplanin, pan-cytokeratin, and vimentin to compare induced tumors with malignant mesotheliomas occurring in humans.

Results

Treatments induced tumors in all dose groups, but incidences and times to tumor differed between groups. Most tumors were histologically and immunohistochemically classified as malignant mesotheliomas, revealing a predominantly superficial spread on the serosal surface of the abdominal cavity. Furthermore, most tumors showed invasion of peritoneal organs, especially the diaphragm. All tested MWCNT types caused mesotheliomas. We observed highest frequencies and earliest appearances after treatment with the rather straight MWCNT types A and B. In the MWCNT C groups, first appearances of morbid mesothelioma-bearing rats were only slightly later. Later during the two-year study, we found mesotheliomas also in rats treated with MWCNT D – the most curved type of nanotubes. Malignant mesotheliomas induced by intraperitoneal injection of different MWCNTs and of asbestos were histopathologically and immunohistochemically similar, also compared with mesotheliomas in man, suggesting similar pathogenesis.

Conclusion

We showed a carcinogenic effect for all tested MWCNTs. Besides aspect ratio, curvature seems to be an important parameter influencing the carcinogenicity of MWCNTs.

Continue reading The carcinogenic effect of various multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) after intraperitoneal injection in rats

Forscher des HIPS und des HZI finden neues Antibiotikum gegen gram-negative Bakterien

Biologinnen untersuchen Bakterien unter dem Mikroskop. Foto: Oliver Dietze

Biologinnen untersuchen Bakterien unter dem Mikroskop. Foto: Universität des Saarlandes, Oliver Dietze

Die Erreger von Infektionserkrankungen Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumanii und Pseudomonas aeruginosa haben zwei große Gemeinsamkeiten: Sie gehören zu den sogenannten gram-negativen Bakterien und sind in Krankenhäusern besonders gefürchtet. Wissenschaftler des Helmholtz-Instituts für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland (HIPS) und des Helmholtz-Zentrums für Infektionsforschung (HZI) in Braunschweig haben nun ein potenzielles neues Antibiotikum entdeckt, das gegen diese schwer zu bekämpfenden Bakterien wirkt. Ihre Ergebnisse veröffentlichten die Forscher im renommierten Journal Angewandte Chemie International Edition.

Immer mehr Keime entwickeln Resistenzen gegen Antibiotika, sodass diese einstigen Wunderwaffen ihre Wirkungskraft verlieren. Vor allem in Krankenhäusern stellt die steigende Anzahl resistenter Keime das Personal vor große Probleme und ist eine große Gefahr für die Patienten. „Am schwierigsten zu behandeln ist die Gruppe der gram-negativen Bakterien. Diese besitzen zwei Zellmembranen. Potenzielle Wirkstoffe müssen durch beide hindurch, um eine Wirkung zu erzielen“, sagt Prof. Rolf Müller, Geschäftsführender Direktor des HIPS. Dadurch sind die Anforderungen an mögliche Wirkstoffe wesentlich komplexer als bei den gram-positiven Bakterien, die nur eine Zellmembran besitzen.

Trotz der komplexen Anforderungen ist es Müller und seinen Kollegen aus der Abteilung „Mikrobielle Naturstoffe“ am HIPS und „Mikrobielle Wirkstoffe“ am HZI gelungen, aus dem Myxobakterium Cystobacter sp. einen Stoff zu isolieren, der auch gegen gram-negative Bakterien wirkt. „Wir haben eine aus chemischer Sicht vollkommen neue Stoffklasse entdeckt, die wir Cystobactamide getauft haben“, sagt Müller. „In Experimenten haben wir gezeigt, dass diese gegen die gram-negativen Bakterien Escherichia coli und Acinetobacter baumannii wirksam sind.“ Die Wirkstoffe sind also in der Lage, die doppelte Zellmembran zu durchdringen und die Bakterien so bekämpfen.

Auch wie sie ihre Wirkung entfalten, konnten die Wissenschaftler bereits zeigen. „Wir konnten nachweisen, dass die Cystobactamide als Gyrasehemmer fungieren: Sie verhindern, dass die DNA der Bakterien platzsparend wie ein verdrillter Gartenschlauch verdichtet werden kann“, erläutert Müller. Wird dieser Vorgang gestört, kann die DNA auch nicht mehr korrekt abgelesen werden, und der Stoffwechsel wird entscheidend behindert.

Gyrasehemmer an sich sind nichts Neues. Ganz im Gegenteil: Viele der bisherigen und wirksamsten Antibiotika basieren auf diesem Prinzip. „Allerdings konnten wir erstmals einen Wirkstoff aus Naturstoffen gewinnen, der so funktioniert“, sagt Müller. Das Potenzial der bekannten, chemisch hergestellten Gyrasehemmer ist praktisch ausgeschöpft. Sie können nach jahrzehntelanger Verbesserung nicht weiterentwickelt werden. In der neuen Stoffklasse der Cystobactamide hingegen gibt es noch vielfältige Optimierungsmöglichkeiten. „Wir hoffen, durch chemische Veränderungen vor allem die Wirkung gegen gram-negative Bakterien weiter verstärken und verbreitern zu können“, erklärt Müller. „Sollte uns das gelingen, sind Cystobactamide ein echter Hoffnungsträger im Kampf gegen Krankenhauskeime und andere gram-negative Bakterien.“

Originalpublikation in Angewandte Chemie International Edition:

Baumann, S., Herrmann, J., Raju, R., Steinmetz, H., Mohr, K. I.,
Hüttel, S., Harmrolfs, K., Stadler, M. and Müller, R. (2014):
„Cystobactamids: Myxobacterial Topoisomerase Inhibitors Exhibiting
Potent Antibacterial Activity“. DOI: 10.1002/anie.201409964
<http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/anie.201409964/full>

Schlaganfall-Patient kann dank neuartiger Therapie wieder räumlich sehen

Das Bild zeigt eine Fusions-Diagnostik: Die Probandin trägt eine Bagolini-Brille. Die Therapeutin hält ihr ein Prisma vor ein Auge und misst dabei ihre Fusion, das heißt, sie ermittelt, inwieweit sie in der Lage ist, die Bilder beider Augen zusammenzuführen. Foto: Oliver Dietze

Das Bild zeigt eine Fusions-Diagnostik: Die Probandin trägt eine Bagolini-Brille. Die Therapeutin hält ihr ein Prisma vor ein Auge und misst dabei ihre Fusion, das heißt, sie ermittelt, inwieweit sie in der Lage ist, die Bilder beider Augen zusammenzuführen. Foto: Universität des Saarlandes, Oliver Dietze

Sehstörungen zählen mit zu den häufigsten Folgen eines Schlaganfalls. In seltenen Fällen tritt dabei der Verlust des räumlichen Sehens ein. Die Patienten nehmen die Welt um sich herum nur noch flach wie ein Bild wahr. Sie können keine Entfernungen mehr abschätzen, etwa wenn sie nach einer Tasse greifen oder sich ihnen auf der Straße ein Auto nähert. Diese Störung haben Forscher aus Saarbrücken um Professor Georg Kerkhoff und Anna-Katharina Schaadt mit Kollegen der Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin bei einem Patienten genauer untersucht. Sie haben nun erstmals ein wirksames Behandlungskonzept entwickelt und nachgewiesen, welches Hirnareal für diese Sehstörung verantwortlich ist. Die Studie wurde in der renommierten Fachzeitschrift „Neuropsychologia“ veröffentlicht.

Nach einem Schlaganfall kann es zu unterschiedlichen Formen von Sehstörungen kommen. „Diese äußern sich etwa darin, dass die Patienten auf einer Seite blind sind, sodass sie Hindernisse oder Personen auf der Seite übersehen oder Probleme beim Lesen haben“, erklärt Georg Kerkhoff, Professor für Klinische Neuropsychologie der Saar-Uni und Leiter der Neuropsychologischen Universitätsambulanz. Manchmal sind die Folgen aber weitaus gravierender: So hat das Team um Kerkhoff und Schaadt zusammen mit Forscherkollegen um Neurologie-Professor Dr. Stephan Brandt und Dr. Antje Kraft von der Charité in Berlin einen Patienten betreut, bei dem es in Folge eines Schlaganfalls zum Verlust des räumlichen Sehens gekommen war. Zwar konnte er alle Details in seiner Umgebung wahrnehmen, er war allerdings nicht mehr in der Lage, Entfernungen richtig einzuschätzen. „Für ihn war alles flach wie auf einem Gemälde“, erklärt Anna-Katharina Schaadt, Doktorandin bei Kerkhoff und Erstautorin der Studie. „Er bewegte sich daher wie in Zeitlupe und war stets unsicher, wie weit zum Beispiel eine Kaffeetasse auf dem Tisch entfernt ist oder wie schnell sich ein heranfahrendes Auto nähert.“ Wie ein Blinder habe er daher einen langen Stock genutzt, um sich in seiner Umgebung zu orientieren.

In der Neuropsychologischen Hochschulambulanz auf dem Saarbrücker Campus haben die Wissenschaftler um Kerkhoff und Schaadt zunächst die Ursache für diese Störung gesucht. „Wir haben herausgefunden, dass der Patient die Seheindrücke seiner beiden Augen nicht mehr zu einem Gesamtbild verschmelzen konnte“, sagt Schaadt. Fachleute bezeichnen diesen Prozess bei gesunden Menschen als binokulare Fusion. Sie ist wichtig für das dreidimensionale Sehen.

Nach der Diagnose haben die Psychologen im Rahmen einer Therapie über drei Wochen hinweg täglich das räumliche Sehen des Patienten geschult. Dabei kamen drei verschiedene Verfahren zum Einsatz: Mit speziellen optischen Trainingsgeräten (Prismen, Vergenztrainer und Cheiroskop) wurden dem Patienten zwei seitlich leicht versetzte Bilder präsentiert. Diese sollten mit Hilfe sogenannter konvergenter Augenbewegungen zu einem einzigen Bild zusammengesetzt werden. Bei diesem Prozess bewegen sich die Augen gegensinnig zur Nase hin, während die Bilder aber im Blickfeld bleiben. Mit der Zeit „verschmelzen“ die beiden zu einem Bild, das auch räumliche (stereoskopische) Tiefe enthält. „Für den Betroffenen war es so, als ob jemand einen Schalter umgelegt hat. Plötzlich konnte er wieder räumlich sehen, Entfernungen richtig einschätzen und Gegenstände zielsicher greifen“, schildert Schaadt die Eindrücke des Patienten, der mittlerweile wieder seinem Beruf als Jurist nachgehen kann. Auch ein Jahr später in einer Nachuntersuchung konnte der Patient weiterhin räumlich sehen, sodass er laut Kerkhoff als dauerhaft geheilt gilt.

Mit dem Verfahren könnten Therapeuten künftig auch anderen Schlaganfall-Patienten helfen, diese extreme Form der Sehstörung zu behandeln. Zudem sind die Ergebnisse für die Forschung interessant, wie Professor Brandt erläutert: „Sie zeigen, wie spezifisch unser Gehirn organisiert ist. Das geschädigte Areal im sogenannten Parietallappen V6/V6A ist auf 3D-Sehen spezialisiert. Aus Studien an Primaten ist die Hirnregion bereits bekannt. Ihre Funktion beim Menschen ist aber noch nicht hinreichend erforscht.“

Die Studie ist erschienen unter:

Schaadt, A.K., Brandt, S.A., Kraft, A., Kerkhoff, G. Holmes and Horrax
(1919) revisited: Impaired binocular fusion as a cause of “flat
vision” after right parietal brain damage – A case study.
Neuropsychologia (2015), DOI:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2015.01.029

 

Cancer news

New findings explain how UV rays trigger skin cancer

18. Okt. 2017

Melanoma, a cancer of skin pigment cells called melanocytes, will strike an estimated 87,110 people in the US in 2017, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A fraction of those melanomas come from pre-existing moles, but the majority of them come from sources unknown — until now. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

- Read more

Researchers release the brakes on the immune system

18. Okt. 2017

Many tumors possess mechanisms to avoid destruction by the immune system. For instance, they misuse the natural “brakes” in the immune defense mechanism, which normally prevent an excessive immune response. Researchers have now been able to take off one of these brakes. The study could pave the way for more effective cancer therapies, they say. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

- Read more

Yeast spotlights genetic variation’s link to drug resistance

18. Okt. 2017

Researchers have shown that genetic diversity plays a key role in enabling drug resistance to evolve. Scientists show that high genetic diversity can prime new mutations that cause drug resistance. The study has implications for our understanding of the evolution of resistance to antimicrobial and anticancer drugs. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

- Read more

Battling flames increases firefighters‘ exposure to carcinogens

18. Okt. 2017

The threat of getting burned by roaring flames is an obvious danger of firefighting, but other health risks are more subtle. For example, firefighters have been found to develop cancer at higher rates than the general population. Now researchers have measured how much firefighters‘ exposure to carcinogens and other harmful compounds increases when fighting fires. Their study also points to one possible way to reduce that exposure. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

- Read more

Machine learning identifies breast lesions likely to become cancer

18. Okt. 2017

A machine learning tool can help identify which high-risk breast lesions are likely to become cancerous, according to a new study. Researchers said the technology has the potential to reduce unnecessary surgeries. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

- Read more

Therapeutic form of arsenic is a potential treatment for deadly type of brain cancer

17. Okt. 2017

From Sherlock Holmes to Agatha Christie, arsenic is often the poison of choice in popular whodunits. But in ultra-low dosage, and in the right form, this naturally occurring chemical element may be a potent force against cancer. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

- Read more

Cancer: New compound targets energy generation, thereby killing metastatic cells

17. Okt. 2017

Researchers have identified an enzyme that supports the survival and dissemination of metastatic cells, and developed a synthetic compound that targets the enzyme and kills the metastatic cells in mice with cancer. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

- Read more

Timing of melanoma diagnosis, treatment critical to survival

17. Okt. 2017

A new study underscores the importance of early detection and treatment of melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer. The research indicates that the sooner patients were treated, the better their survival, particularly for stage I melanoma. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

- Read more

Many pelvic tumors in women may have common origin: Fallopian tubes

17. Okt. 2017

Most, and possibly all, ovarian cancers start, not in ovaries, but instead in the fallopian tubes attached to them, report investigators. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

- Read more

Novel mechanism of resistance to anti-cancer drugs

17. Okt. 2017

Investigators have discovered a novel non-genetic cause of resistance to the targeted anti-cancer therapy cetuximab. Their findings suggest a strategy for overcoming this resistance. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

- Read more

Biology of childhood brain tumor subtypes offers clues to precision treatments

17. Okt. 2017

Researchers investigating pediatric low-grade gliomas (PLGG), the most common type of brain tumor in children, have discovered key biological differences in how mutated genes combine with other genes to drive this childhood cancer. By shedding light on subtle distinctions in tumor biology, these findings offer clues to designing more effective anticancer treatments to precisely target tumors in individual patients. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

- Read more

Bolstering fat cells offers potential new leukemia treatment

16. Okt. 2017

Killing cancer cells indirectly by powering up fat cells in the bone marrow could help acute myeloid leukemia patients, says a new study. Researchers found that boosting adipocytes, or fat cells, located in the bone morrow suppressed cancerous leukemia cells but — in a surprise to the research team — also induced the regeneration of healthy blood cells. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

- Read more

Scientists identify biomarker for progression, drug response in brain cancer

16. Okt. 2017

Scientists have reported results from a glioblastoma study in which they validated a biomarker indicative of a patient’s prognosis and likely response to specific therapies. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

- Read more

Scientists demonstrate path to linking the genome to healthy tissues, disease

16. Okt. 2017

A study has reached a major milestone in establishing a baseline understanding of gene expression across healthy human tissues, and linking genes to disease. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

- Read more

Scientists reveal the relationship between sugar, cancer

13. Okt. 2017

A nine-year joint research project has led to a crucial breakthrough in cancer research. Scientists have clarified how the Warburg effect, a phenomenon in which cancer cells rapidly break down sugars, stimulates tumor growth. This discovery provides evidence for a positive correlation between sugar and cancer, which may have far-reaching impacts on tailor-made diets for cancer patients. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

- Read more

Liquid biopsy for retinoblastoma

12. Okt. 2017

A new study provides proof of concept for a safe and effective way to derive genetic information from a retinoblastoma tumor. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

- Read more

3D packaging of DNA regulates cell identity

12. Okt. 2017

The ability of a stem cell to differentiate into cardiac muscle (and by extension other cell types) depends on what portions of the genome are available for activation, which is controlled by the location of DNA in a cell’s nucleus, new research suggests. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

- Read more

Veranstaltungen

1st Gießen Symposium of Insect Biotechnology

01. Okt. 2017

We are delighted to invite delegates to the 1st Gießen Symposium for Insect Biotechnology. (Mehr in: Veranstaltungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

- Weiterlesen

19th Herbstakademie

01. Okt. 2017

Embodied Aesthetics: Resonance in Perception, Expression and Therapy (Mehr in: Veranstaltungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

- Weiterlesen

17. Wissenschaftliche Jahrestagung der DGSF

01. Okt. 2017

Von der Neutralität zur Parteilichkeit – SystemikerInnen mischen sich ein (Mehr in: Veranstaltungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

- Weiterlesen

16. Deutscher Kongress für Versorgungsforschung

01. Okt. 2017

Unter dem Thema: „Zukunft Regionale Versorgung – Forschung, Innovation, Kooperation“ wird vom 4. bis 6. Oktober 2017 der 16. Deutsche Kongress für Versorgungsforschung (DKVF2016) in der Urania in Berlin stattfinden. (Mehr in: Veranstaltungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

- Weiterlesen

100 Jahre Zukunft. Die Mistel in der Krebstherapie

01. Okt. 2017

Die Misteltherapie – immer noch umstritten oder längst etabliert? Antworten auf diese Frage gibt es beim Symposium „100 Jahre Zukunft. Die Mistel in der Krebstherapie“ am 21. Oktober 2017 in Berlin. Das Symposium richtet sich an Ärzte, Pharmazeuten, Therapeuten, Pflegende und Patienten. Theorie und Praxis kommen gleichermaßen zu Wort: Best-Practice, Erfahrungen und spannende Forschungsergebnisse werden vorgestellt. Diskussionen und Roundtables ergänzen das Programm. (Mehr in: Veranstaltungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

- Weiterlesen

100 Jahre Max-Planck-Institut für Physik – Jubiläumssymposium und Festakt

01. Okt. 2017

Das Max-Planck-Institut für Physik begeht seinen 100. Jahrestag: Am 1. Oktober 1917 nahm das damalige Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für Physik unter Direktor Albert Einstein seine Arbeit auf. Dieses Jubiläum feiert das MPI für Physik mit einem wissenschaftlichen Symposium, das vom 10. bis 12. Oktober 2017 stattfindet. Ein anschließender Festakt mit Abendprogramm beschließt die Feierlichkeiten zum 100-jährigen Bestehen des Instituts. (Mehr in: Veranstaltungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

- Weiterlesen

22. International Biohydrometallurgy Symposium

01. Sep. 2017

Call for Papers is open – submit your contribution until 10 January 2017

The biannual International Biohydrometallurgy Symposium is the global forum for experts from academia and industry active in the fields of biomining, bioleaching and bioremediation. These technologies have a high potential to establish environmentally favourable processes for the recovery of primary and secondary precious and base metal resources as well as the remediation of exploited mining sites. (Mehr in: Veranstaltungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

- Weiterlesen